Marketing and Advertising For Beginners

Isn’t web based promoting and web based publicizing precisely the same? Numerous individuals imagine that Online Marketing and Advertising are a similar thing – that is valid. Be that as it may, with the rise of Web 2.0 period, these terms now have distinctive importance. Web based Marketing is the specialty of building web companions, in one of the numerous social groups on the web; Online Advertising is the point at which you really put advertisements and articles, all through the web, with the expectation to offer an item or administration.

Web based Marketing will bring you a huge number of qualified prospects

Do you know what sites get the most guests every month in the entire world? In the event that you go to alexa.com you will see a rundown of the best sites in the entire world – as far as guests. I need to center around six sites specifically. They are as per the following:

Rank#5 Facebook

Rank#7 MySpace

Rank#29 Flickr

Rank#41 Friendster

Rank#45 Skyrock

Rank#64 Dailymotion

These are on the whole long range informal communication locales. Out of the a great many sites that exist online these six are in the best 100. That implies that these destinations get a great many guests for each month. That implies there are a lot of individuals for you to make companions with and a lot of individuals that you can transform into clients. This is one motivation behind why internet showcasing is so capable.

On the off chance that the objective of Online Marketing is to make companions, at that point how might you profit?

It’s basic really. Who might you rather purchase something from? Somebody you know and trust or finish stranger. The possibility of web based showcasing is simply to take part in dialogs of your decision. In a perfect world something you’re comfortable with. Better believe it, this requires significant investment however its intense advertising technique to use to develop your business. Also, it works route superior to on the off chance that you were disconnected attempting to make companions in the shopping center, or supermarket or some different spots that way.

Web based Advertising is a stunning method to develop your business yet it isn’t a basic as Online showcasing

There are a huge number of people who are incredible salaries through internet publicizing yet it requires a little investment to learn. Web based publicizing comprise of setting promotions, making advertisements, composing promotions, and obviously web based showcasing – likewise know as social promoting. With the usage of internet showcasing and publicizing, you can without much of a stretch see high as can be comes about with your business, and monetary development. There are some incredible free and charge based sites that will give you the data that you need achievement, however you’ll take in more with the paid strategies. There are even a few places that will actually walk you through the entire web based showcasing and publicizing process. Having said that, simply recall that there are huge amounts of spots that can be useful to your business development; you simply should make sure to get your work done.

Exposure is Key to Your Business

Promoting and Advertising a conventional physical business is an exorbitant experience. Postage and mailing costs are so high and we as a whole comprehend what its jump at the chance to really go to the Post Office and attempt and drop off a bundle, also the arrival rates on snail mail is short of what one percent of the aggregate mailings, and most index and direct deals showcasing strategies are viewed as effective on the off chance that they simply make back the initial investment. This isn’t the situation when advertising on the web your site or independent venture on the web. Extending your business on the web is an absolute necessity it uncovered your items or administrations to a significantly larger amount, client base; in any case, without appropriate publicizing, advertising abilities and systems, few will ever discover your Web webpage. There a billions of people as of now online overall utilizing the web. Web utilization has developed exponentially in the USA and abroad. You can publicize and showcase your site in this tremendous commercial center at almost no cost utilizing the procedures I can furnish you with in my program. Today web showcasing is more imperative than some other type of promoting; I couldn’t care less if it’s the daily paper, indexes, magazines, TV or radio. A decent showcasing program online will decimate the execution of the last mentioned.

The web has changed the lives of you and me and everybody who utilizes it. This implies the web is digging in for the long haul. As an entrepreneur or an individual hoping to begin a business online you have to push ahead now so your not left behind with the bygone promoting and advertising procedures. Customary publicizing is fine if your attempting to concentrate your showcasing effort, so you can catch a prompt region, yet you need to worldwide so as to establish a major connection on the world, increment your deals, and pick up presentation that must be done on the web.

Each feature of business is being influenced by the web. This implies regardless of what kind of business you have, block and cement, locally established, on the web or disconnected, you will need to utilize the web to advance it. The web isn’t only to sell items online any longer, so remove that idea from your everyday measurements of promoting thoughts in light of the fact that the web is currently a pipeline of quick data to your future clients. It turns into a numbers amusement and the higher the number the more deals you will make.

A great many people visit a Web webpage to explain at least one of the accompanying

They require data to settle on a choice.

They need to make a buy or think about evaluating.

Make a gift.

They need to be engaged.

The web is altogether different from different mediums of promoting and showcasing. The web turns into a channel for correspondence between potential clients, and it enables individuals and organizations to circulate their items too make exchanges. Another way the web is diverse shape different types of publicizing is that it is to a great degree intuitive, and depends fundamentally on the purchaser for the collaboration. The web can address the issues of individuals searching for item data, and examinations in no other way conventional promoting techniques can or will ever have the capacity to do.

Marketing and Advertising Costs

Showcasing and promoting are interrelated organizations. Showcasing includes the offer of an item while publicizing assumes a critical part in its advancement. They are the two of the most basic factors in any business today. Subsequently, their request is expanding hugely. Huge organizations procure different promoting and publicizing firms so as to offer their items. The essential necessity for any organization that contracts a showcasing and promoting firm is a significant spending plan for the same.

All organizations depend, all things considered, on showcasing and publicizing for the extension of business, however this is particularly valid for marked organizations. The principle purpose for their excessive costs is the diverse promoting and publicizing costs they bear. These expenses for the most part incorporate promoting through TV, print, coordinate occasion showcasing efforts and different costs identified with their agreements including extensive showcasing and publicizing staff. These make up the showcasing and publicizing expenses of the foundation. The main distinction is that the huge organizations like to use extremely costly and brilliant promoting and publicizing of their items or business. This costly showcasing and promoting picked by them costs them an extraordinary arrangement and this reflects in the cost of their items.

Now and again, the market is totally immersed and there are relatively few deals. At such circumstances certain organizations dispense with their promoting and publicizing costs by making utilization of different choices accessible. For example, they actually contact their potential customers with the goal that their promoting and publicizing costs amid that period is zero.

Through promoting and publicizing, an immediate association is built up between people in general and the firm. This is accomplished through TV, radio or daily papers. Subsequently, showcasing and promoting for any business association is vital and henceforth the included cost for ads must be arranged in an orderly way remembering organization prerequisites and the money related capability of the organization.

The Importance of Web Copy to Web Marketing and Advertising

Web showcasing and promoting is so unique in relation to customary
showcasing and promoting that numerous individuals with aptitude in
conventional showcasing discover the ideas utilized in copywriting
for sites and web showcasing to be bizarre. Numerous even deny
the truth that web showcasing and promoting on the web is
not the same as customary advertising and they endeavor to apply

conventional promoting methods instead of demonstrated copywriting
methods that are effective for web showcasing and publicizing.
The primary distinction between conventional deals duplicate and web duplicate
for web showcasing and promoting is that conventional deals duplicate
is normally regarded to be more viable in the event that it is brief and to the
point. Copywriting for web promoting and publicizing; be that as it may, is

interesting in that it isn’t expected to just enthrall the
gatherings of people’s consideration and incite them to make a move, for example,
getting the telephone or going by a store.
Copywriting for web promoting and publicizing really serves to
satisfy the whole promoting and deals process. Since

web business is by and large robotized, the business duplicate is much
more than material for web showcasing and publicizing, it is the
“businessperson” that acquaints site guests with your items
what’s more, administrations, features the highlights and advantages of your
items and administrations, counters complaints, asks the peruser to
act, and brings the deal to a close.

Since the part of offers duplicate for web promoting and publicizing
is quite a lot more required than that of customary deals and
showcasing materials, being brief and to the fact of the matter isn’t as a rule
the best way to deal with setting up your web duplicate. Short web duplicate can

be valuable on the off chance that you have an online inventory and you are just
giving item depictions through your web duplicate. In any case,
most web based business organizations require long duplicate to induce site

guests to wind up clients, to make deals, and to produce
web based business incomes.

Creating helpful web duplicate for your web promoting and publicizing
utilizing long deals duplicate strategies starts with arranging. You should
know your intended interest group, set up a one of a kind offering recommendation
that will speak to that group of onlookers while separating you from
the opposition, build up an evaluating procedure and rewards that give
clients the impression of significant worth, and recognize watchword terms and
phrases that your clients will utilize while hunting down your
items or administrations.

The Marketing and Advertising Finale

Discovering clients bodes well yet keeping clients bodes well. So can any anyone explain why such a significant number of organizations have a business office and a promoting/publicizing office however neglect to capacitate follow-up bunches for the two divisions?

Most organizations can comprehend the showcasing and promoting advantages of catching up with their clients (or with intrigued site guests) yet they don’t generally have sufficient energy to do it. All things considered, it can appear like a tedious procedure that doesn’t generally have all the earmarks of being fundamental. Be that as it may, your promoting and publicizing follow-up division can be one of the most straightforward procedures to oversee in the event that you essentially make it a procedure that doesn’t require extraordinary or costly difficult work.

An online businessknowhow article proposes that each [marketing and advertising] follow up process ought to in certainty incorporate the accompanying traits:

1) “It ought to be methodical, implying that the subsequent procedure is done likewise way without fail.”

2) “It ought to create steady, unsurprising outcomes.”

3) “It ought to require negligible physical communication to influence it to run, which means it ought to have the capacity to keep running on autopilot.”

Making Your Marketing and Advertising Follow Up Process Work for You

To catch up with your current clients, you don’t need to contract a huge number of telemarketers. It’s essentially a bit much. In addition, you likely know and also any other individual the fundamental level of the individuals who really like getting telemarketer-type calls. Yuck! Who needs it?

Rather, when you follow-up after your showcasing and promoting endeavors, try more like endowments and benevolent signals than disturbances. Discover those in your organization who can compose duplicate or plan (or contract them) and set them to work making the enlightening insurance that you should inspire your customers.

A Marketing and Advertising Follow Up Example

Suppose you claim a group theater. You see that the clients who once acquired season tickets now just buy maybe a couple tickets for every year and you might want to send them follow-up material to urge them to buy yearly season ticket bundles. You chose to have your essayists and originators make appealing handouts and data promoting and publicizing duplicate that strikingly depicts each play in it’s best light and tells your clients the amount they can spare by buying their tickets in a yearly bundle. On the off chance that you can, send a key chain or other limited time gadget to your best customers. When you give this kind of data to individuals who are as of now inspired by your items, they surely won’t be irritated… they will be appreciative. A standout amongst other sorts of promoting and publicizing is the sort that genuinely inspires appreciation and buys from your clients.

The businessknowhow.com article additionally prescribes that you “Make sure to dependably incorporate a “following stage offer” to go with your instructive materials. In the event that the subsequent stage is to visit the store, at that point allure them with a proper offer or if the following stage is to call you, tempt your prospect to call you instantly.”

Web Designing And Seo

Technologies are improving day by day. The days were gone where a new brand went through a lot of troubles to be famous and well-known. It needed a lot of advertisement to come to the attraction of folks. Televisions, newspapers, and magazines are some mediums to promote a brand. But it was really tiresome as it takes a long time and process. A brand could be lost easily in the crowd of competitors. Reaching people was tough and complicated. But those days were gone and today a new item does not face many troubles for its promotion. It is because of the invention of the internet. This highly advanced technology has made everything easy and fast. From booking a flight ticket to communicating one far away from a place becomes easy and it is by the influence of the internet. The internet has entered in everyone’s home very casually and has made lives more comfortable and swift.
Now business promotion is not a big matter to the businesspersons and they have got many useful and effective ways to make brands popular and well-known. One of the easiest and effective ways is website making. You can call that it is an imperative task for every business and by using this skill a business can reach its highest level of success. When a new brand is marketed it needs to be popular for increasing its sell and profit. And it is the best option to create an innovative and informative website for the brand. Website making is a tough task also as it needs the highest efficiency. You can get many assurances about the services as there are many designers but it is a challenge to find an innovative and experienced designing team for the purpose.
Your website is the face of what you provide to the people. It can say everything about your taste, choice, and eminence. Thus, it should be created sincerely and in an efficient manner that it can attract a huge number of visitors easily with its first glimpse. When a visitor visits your website he leaves it immediately if there is no interesting issue in it. And making your website interesting and attractive, you need a good and experienced website designer or a designing team that is efficient, creative, and resourceful. Searching on the internet, you will be able to find out the best Web Design Adelaide that can support you from the initial stage. A creative designer inputs all your essential data and images to your website that visitors get the total familiarity about your business.
A creative website making does not work fruitfully if it is not promoted on the internet. And it is called SEO, the service that gives your brand a higher rank on the search engines like Google. When a visitor searches a product he will be impressive by your position if it has a higher position. He is more likely want to choose a business that has a good and reputed position. And a good and skilled Adelaide SEO team can create the miracle by the most innovative and advanced process. SEO is an imperative task to increase your business and brand name. Chose the team carefully and enjoy a gainful business.

Hyperthyroidism-What You Need to Know

According to our research at the National Metabolic and Longevity Research Center, a healthy thyroid produces hormones that control a person’s metabolic rate. In essence, the thyroid acts as the body’s gas pedal. An overactive or hyperthyroid causes the body’s systems to run too hot and too fast. An under-active or hypothyroid causes the body’s systems to run too cold and too slow. The effects of low thyroid and low body temperature can be devastating because for every one degree decrease in body temperature the base metabolic rate decreases by approximately 6%.

It is not uncommon for a person to have an average temperature that is two to four degrees below normal, this correlates to a 12%-24% reduction in overall metabolism. No wonder these people feel tired and depressed and are consistently challenged with their weight.

Hypothyroidism is a common health condition affecting millions of men and women (more women than men)that is frequently overlooked in our health care system. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) estimates that 10% of Americans – more than the number of Americans with diabetes and cancer combined – suffer from thyroid disease.

The bottom line is that millions of Americans are hypothyroid, many hypothyroid patients receive inadequate treatment, and millions more are hypothyroid and may never even know.

Fatigue is one of the most common reasons for visits to primary care doctors, but the risk factors of having a poorly active thyroid are varied, and include: auto immune disease, post-partum depression, infertility, multiple miscarriages, pms (the previous 5 are specific to women only), weakness, problems with skin or hair, lethargy, sensation of cold, impaired memory or mood, constipation, weight gain or loss, muscle/joint pain, emotional instability, swelling around eyes, face or legs, nervousness, depression, heart palpitations, fullness in the throat area or difficulty swallowing, and much more.

A Women’s Health Care Facility

On the off chance that you need a quality and expert therapeutic focus to address a lady related issue, discover a ladies’ medicinal services office where specialists comprehend what you are experiencing. Your issues may run from a substantial period to menopausal issues, and a far reaching therapeutic focus is an amazing decision to give you the treatment that you require. You can get therapeutic treatment for issues, for example, vaginal release, and additionally growth screenings, hormone treatment, and counteractive action and training techniques concerning STD’s. You can call and make an arrangement with a specific end goal to get look at concerning your own issues.

In the event that you need a gynecologist, an expert ladies’ social insurance office is an incredible answer for making you feel casual and sure with you specialist. You can get an arrangement that will treat your gynecological condition, and additionally to enhance your other general issues. You can get a determination of your condition and a clarification of the analysis to help you comprehend the choices accessible for treatment and to keep it from repeating. A few conditions that can be analyzed and treated at a ladies’ medicinal services office in the zone of gynecology include:

– Breast issues
– Birth control
– Abnormal pap smears
– Endometriosis
– Menopause
– STD avoidance and treatment
– Vaginal contamination
– Urinary earnestness and contaminations
– Incontinence
– Uterine fibroids
– Bone issues
– Infertility
– Pelvic bolster issues
– Abnormal vaginal dying
– Ovarian sores

Finding the right gynecologist is vital to a lady. Most will have a gynecological visit just once every year for their yearly exam. In any case, there are times when issues happen extra visits to the specialist are required. It is essential that you feel sure and alright with your selection of doctors to address a lady related issue and a ladies’ medicinal services focus might be only the answer you are searching for.

On the off chance that you need a quality focus where doctors and staff are focused on giving you the best answers for your restorative issues, contact a complete ladies’ social insurance office. They will utilize the most recent surgical systems and treatment to help you, and furnish you with a human agreeable approach so you feel great. You can look at their site to learn of the administrations they offer, data on their medicinal staff, locationsBusiness Management Articles, and data on their office.

The Best Body Acne Treatments

Whilst most people think that acne is a condition that mainly affects the face, it can also be experienced all over the body including on the chest, back and shoulders. Treatments that are used to combat facial acne can also be used to help cure body acne, and there are also some additional techniques that are highly effective on the body that do not work so on the face. In this article I am going to cover the top treatments for body acne that I have discovered and I will also explain how, and why, they work so effectively. By using natural treatments for your body acne you will also be helping the environment and reducing your exposure to potentially harmful chemicals which is undeniably a good thing.

If you suffer from acne on your chest, back or other body areas, one of the best ways to treat the problem is to prevent it from occurring in the first place. Run your fingers over the skin on your back and it will probably feel patches of roughness. These are areas on your skin where there are a large number of clogged pores and blackheads which will turn into proper pimples if they come into contact with acne causing bacteria. By removing these clogged pores and blackheads you can prevent pimples from forming at all. To remove them, you need an exfoliating glove and clay cleanser. Wet the skin with a warm, damp facecloth then apply a generous amount of cleanser. Rub the cleanser into the skin using the exfoliating glove in a circular motion. Repeat this process once every day and after a week or so you should notice a big reduction in the number of pimples you are suffering from. Please note that this acne treatment should only be performed on the back, shoulders and chest and not on the face as it will cause excessive irritation to the more delicate skin on the face.

Another excellent treatment for body acne is lemon juice. It is extremely effective because the citric acid in the juice acts to “dry out” excess oil, as well as having an antibacterial effect. To prepare a lemon juice treatment you will need a small, fresh lemon. Remove the rind and then cut the flesh into thin slices. Gently rub a slice over an area of skin, ensuring that you squeeze out most of the juice. Repeat the same process for any other areas of skin you wish to treat, using a different slice of lemon for each small area of skin. Leave the juice to dry for fifteen minutes then wash off with a mild cleanser. Perform this treatment once every day (either in the morning or in the evening) as a natural alternative to conventional remedies for body acne. If you experience any irritation of the skin after using lemon juice, discontinue use immediately.

Of all available treatments for body acne, one of the best, but least expensive, is water. This wonder substance helps to keep your skin healthy and therefore aids in preventing acne outbreaks. Water has this effect because it assists your skin cells in their renewal process, cleanses the body of toxins and keeps the skin firm and supple. Ideally, you should be drinking around three liters of water a day, spaced out throughout the day. If possible the water that you drink should be filtered to remove any impurities such as metal residues that may have a negative impact on your health. Filtration devices can be purchased from most electrical appliance stores or over the internet. Drinking too much water can be harmful and even fatal, therefore it is essential to increase your water consumption gradually. Increase your daily intake by 500mls every two weeks until you reach the three liter mark. If you notice any unpleasant side effects then reduce your water intake back to its normal level.

In this article I have outlined some of the best body acne treatments, such as increasing your daily intake of water, using lemon juice as an antibacterial wash and removing oil clogs which lead to acne outbreaks. All that is required now is for you to take action and follow the steps outlined here to help rid yourself of body acne.

Healthy Eating In Pregnancy

Pregnancy can be termed as a superb feeling for any lady. You are presently creation. Along these lines you ought to look great and additionally feel great. Sound pregnancy prompts the introduction of a solid infant. Amid this 9 months time of pregnancy , one ought to take extremely specific and solid nourishment. No garbage nourishment ought to be taken as it just makes issues and complexities which we don’t know until we confront them.

Presently the inquiry emerges that what would it be a good idea for us to eat when we are pregnant? Well whatever one eats it ought to contain the fundamental supplements. Water, milk, yogurt are all great its better to take low fat milk and yogurt. Loads of green vegetables ought to be made a piece of your every day diet. Proteins are likewise another crucial component of your eating routine. Fish, sheep, and chicken are some great decisions. Red meat is not that solid as it expands the danger of elevated cholesterol and fat in your body. Liquor and smoking ought to be entirely abstained from amid pregnancy as its not under any condition bravo and for your unborn infant.

Pregnancy requests care and delicate taking care of. The more you will take care of yourself the more you will avoid infections and intricacies. A pregnant lady ought to have little parcels of nourishment and don’t eat in extensive dinners. As when you eat a considerable measure you will encounter heart smolder and uncomfortable feeling. So make your dinners little and there is no damage in eating the same number of times as you crave eating. There is no limitation as when to eat and when not to eat. So better make an arrangement for your suppers. An immaculate eating routine is made out of four to five dinner times. In the first place at a young hour in the morning, right now you can take a some milk and with it you can eat 1 or 2 oats saltines. Furthermore, on the off chance that you are not having a craving for drinking milk then you can make your self a some green tea. It won’t just make you feel crisp however it will likewise help you in avoiding morning infection.

At breakfast time a medium dish of porridge is a great decision, or you can have a vegetable omelet with cocoa bread and a glass of new squeeze of your decision. Tea is not that great alternative as it causes acid reflux and cerebral pains. So it’s ideal to keep away from it, yet once every day you can drink some tea. At lunch time flame broiled chicken bosom, bubbled green vegetables, cocoa bread, pasta, lamb, upheld fish, bubbled beans, rice, lentil soup are all solid choices. Same is for supper time. The key thing is that whatever you ought to eat it must have some solid supplement esteem. Heaps of flavors, sleek nourishment and elevated cholesterol beverages ought to be avoided at all costs. Drink a lot of crisp water as it will help you flush your framework legitimately, and help you not to have any clogging.

It is said that you require not to put on additional weight amid the initial 6 months of your pregnancy as whatever you will eat will just goes to your body and following 6 months whatever you will eat specifically help your infant to put on weight and you will likewise see a noticeable change in your weight following 6 months. So it is encouraged to eat sound and sensibly. Do no take greasy nourishments as once you put on weight it will be extremely troublesome for you to decrease after pregnancy . So to keep your self fit and gorgeous eat carefully and sensibly. It is ideal to get more guidance from your wellbeing nutritionist.

Here are a couple of brisk tips for sound pregnancy that you ought to know.

o Talk to your specialist about the amount of weight you ought to pick up amid pregnancy .

o Eat sustenances rich in folate, iron, calcium, and protein, or get these supplements through a pre-birth supplement

o Before taking any supplements do converse with your human services supplier.

o Do not skip breakfast.

o Eat high-fiber nourishments and drink a lot of water to maintain a strategic distance from obstruction.

o Avoid crude egg, liquor, crude fish, and fish high in mercury, delicate cheeses, and anything that is not sustenance.

o Aim to do no less than 30 minutes of moderate action on most days of the week. Converse with your medicinal services supplier before you start.

o Continue eating admirably after your conveyance, with the goal that you come back to a solid weight bit by bit. Try not to consider pregnancy as an infection, as its lone a gift and think yourself as the fortunate one who is honored by God with this lovely endowment of nature.

Adhering to a good diet

what is a good dieting arrangement for pregnancy ?

An adhering to a good diet arrangement contains a wide assortment of sustenances from the five fundamental nourishment groups.* Every day, you ought to attempt to eat:

6 or more servings of bread, grain, rice, or pasta.

One serving approaches one cut of bread, 1 ounce of prepared to-eat grain (around 1 measure of most oats), or 1/2 measure of cooked oat, rice, or pasta. In the event that you are physically dynamic, you can eat more servings (up to 11 servings on the off chance that you are exceptionally dynamic).

3 to 5 servings of vegetables.

One serving approaches 1 measure of crude verdant vegetables, for example, spinach or lettuce, or 1/2 measure of slashed vegetables, cooked or crude.

2 to 4 servings of organic product.

One serving levels with one medium bit of natural product like an apple, banana, or orange; 1/some slashed crisp, cooked, or canned organic product; 1/4 container dried natural product; or 3/some 100-percent organic product juice.

2 servings of milk, yogurt, or cheddar.

One serving levels with some milk or yogurt, 1/2 ounces of normal cheddar like cheddar or mozzarella, or 2 ounces of prepared cheddar like American. On the off chance that you are 18 years or more youthful and pregnant, you require no less than 3 servings of milk, yogurt, and cheddar. Pick low-fat or sans fat dairy items regularly.

2 to 3 servings of meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, or nuts.

One serving breaks even with 2 to 3 ounces of cooked meat, poultry, or fish-about the measure of a deck of cards. Pick incline cuts and eat close to 5 to 7 ounces of meat, poultry, or fish a day. One measure of cooked beans, for example, kidney beans or 2 eggs consider a serving. Four tablespoons of nutty spread or 2/3 measure of nuts likewise breaks even with a serving.

No less than 8 glasses of water.

Drinking milk, 100-percent juice, seltzer or other non-mixed refreshments numbers toward your measure of day by day water.

* Adapted from the U.S. Bureau of Agriculture/Department of Health and Human Services Food Guide Pyramid.